A struct (or structure) is a value type which encapsulates a small group of related variables.

Structs prove efficient in certain situations; for example, an application requiring a declaration of an array with 2,000 objects of the same type allocates too much memory. They represent a record; for example, a laser cutter with a model name, model number, type, and product ID number. Structs can hold constructors, fields, constants, methods, indexers, events, properties, operators, and nested types; however, if several members are necessary, a class would be more appropriate. Review struct syntax below:

public struct Pizza
	public float price;
	public string name;
	public string size;

Review the example below to see the struct in use:

using System;
struct Pizza
	private float price;
	private string name;
	private string size;
	private int productID;
	public void getInfo(string n, string s, float p, int pi)
		price = p;
		name = n;
		size = s;
		productID = pi;
	public void show()
		Console.WriteLine(name + ”{0}” + size + “{0}” + “$” + price);
public class PizzaTest
	public static void Main(string[] args)
		Pizza Pizza1 = new Pizza();
		Pizza Pizza2 = new Pizza();
		Pizza1.getInfo("The Californian",”Medium”, "15.00");
		Pizza2.getInfo("Soul Food","Medium", "25.00");;;

Structs have the following limitations:

  1. Though they can implement interfaces, structs cannot inherit; thus, they cannot have protected members.
  2. Defining a default (no parameters) constructor for a struct causes an error.
  3. Initializing an instance field within a struct body causes an error.


Knowing when to use structs rather than classes may be unclear. Classes and structs are separated by the following characteristics:

  1. Structs, unlike classes, do not require the new operator in instantiation.
  2. Structs, unlike classes, cannot inherit or serve as a base class; however, structs inherit from the base class Object.
  3. Structs are value types, and classes are reference types. Classes cannot be declared as structs.
  4. Structs are best for small, simple datasets; and classes are better for large, complex sets.